Sunday, April 8, 2012

Cultural component of phraseology in the US

Value of regional studies of English phraseology.
In particular, schoolchildren, students, simple Philistine, mastering a foreign language, in this case English, receives highly efficient opportunity to join the national culture and history people of Britain. Phraseology, as an integral part and a kind Treasure every language the world can most strongly contribute to this encourage the involvement. Idiom and phraseological combinations reflect long history of the British people, the uniqueness of its culture, life, traditions. Therefore phraseologisms are highly informative units of English language.What is idiom ? Elucidation of this , as well as types and causes of the emergence and transformation of phraseology and dedicated work.Regional geographic value of phraseology formed three components.
First, idioms reflect national culture of dissection, the units of its composition .Some of these words have no equivalents.Secondly, the English phraseological units express national culture undivided, integrated, all its elements, taken together, that is their phraseological values.Finally, thirdly, idioms reflect national culture of their prototypes, since genetically free phrase describes certain customs, traditions, especially the life and culture, historical events, and much more.
In its most idiomatic expressions created by the people, so they are closely linked with the interests and daily classes of ordinary people. Many idioms associated with superstitions and myths. However, the majority of English phraseology appeared in the professional voice.
Sport has always played an important role in the lives of the inhabitants Misty Albion.
British are proud of the fact that many sports emerged in their country, and then spread around the world. British National games are football cricket, racing, billiards. Many phraseologisms associated with jumps, rooster fighting with boxing. They are characterized by humor, worldly wisdom, their content is our world, environment, and the atmosphere - a shrewd, hard, devoid of common sense of romance.
The focus is on success and money. Satisfaction afforded by wealth and success, is expressed in many phraseology.Thus, the English phraseological units can give us key to the national character of the people of Britain, its culture, history and political life.
Notion of phraseologism. Idioms are phraseological units, idioms, sustainable combination of words, which is characterized by constant lexical composition, grammatical structure and well-known speakers of the language of value (In most cases - portable-shaped ), Not deducible from the components of phraseological components.
This is reproduced in the speech in accordance with historically established norms of consumption.
Phraseologisms are differ from fully reinterpreted composition and unmotivated value - phraseological seam.
For example: Back the wrong horse to make a bad choice .
Bite the bullet bravely stand with a motivated value - phraseological unity
For example:
The bottom line outcome.
Break the ice to melt the ice.
Phraseology combination, including in its membership word or words with happy phraseology associated value, for example:
Deep silence profound silence.
Iron nerves nerves of steel.
Phraseology expression - a combination of reviewed words, but constant composition and value.
There are other classifications that originated as a basis distinguish types of phraseological nature of the restrictions in the choice of variables elements of their structure, material unit or variable composition of words — components, the degree of stability of the structure and its elements, and other.
Different set of values and character structure of phraseological forms of a language.
Phraseology - (Greek Phrases - expression + logos — teaching) - the science of a complex composition of linguistic units are sustainable: upside down, trapped a cat laugh.
Phraseology is also called the totality of these complex composition of stable combinations - phraseology. Idiom, in contrast to the lexical items have number of characteristics. Idiom always complicated in composition, they are formed connection of several components that are usually separate stress, but not at the same time preserving the value of independent words. For example:
Hold one's hand to abstain from something.
Honest to God! God knows!
Idiom semantically indivisible, they have usually undifferentiated value that can be in one word. For example:
Lose one's head bold face
Lose one's heart to fall in love.
Make a poor mouth poor mouth.
However, this feature is not peculiar to all phraseology. There are those who are equal to the whole descriptive words. For example:
Have a green thumb golden hands (on the gardener).
Have all one's goods in the shop window flaunt.
Have a lot on the ball to be very capable. Such phraseologisms arise as a result of figurative rethinking of free word combinations.
3. Idiom in contrast to free phrases characterizes the constancy of composition. One or another component of phraseologism no substitute for friends meaning of the word, at the time, as free phrase can easily tolerate such replacement. For example:
Instead of a ladies' man ladies' man, ladies' man.
Can not say a gentlemen 'women Instead.
Lady luck lady luck.
Can not say man luck.
This can be compared to free phrases:
To read a book
To read a novel
To read a story
However, some phraseological units have options, such as:
With all one's heart
With all one's soul
Nevertheless, the existence of options does not mean. What these phraseology can be arbitrarily update the composition. Idiom distinguishes reproducibility. In contrast to free phrases that built directly in the speech, phraseological units are used in the finished form, as they consolidated their position in the language, what they hold our memories.
Exception of phraseological units, which allow insert some clarifying words are:
To learn one's lesson to learn (To learn good lesson from something to learn from something structural feature of some phraseology is the presence of a truncated form, along with the full).
For example:
A friend in need chum (A friend in need is a friend indeed a friend is known in trouble Reduction phraseologisms in such cases explained by the desire for verbal economy, but sometimes leads to complete rethinking and change the values phraseologism).
6. Idiom inherent stability of the grammatical form of their components: each member of phraseological combinations reproduced certain grammatical form, which can not be arbitrarily changed.
That is not to replace the plural form only and vice versa, the comparative degree of adjectives and so more. Only in special cases, possible variations of grammatical forms of individual phraseology.
For example:
To gather up the thread (s) to renew any case.
To get into deep water get into hot position.
Most phraseologysms are strictly fixed word order.
At the same time phraseologisms global type, for example consisting of a verb and dependent on it the words, allow permutation components. Heterogeneity of the structure of a number of phraseological due to the fact that the phraseology unites rather colorful language material with the boundary of some phraseological units delineated enough definitely. Classification of phraseology Study phraseology of English suggests their classification on a variety of grounds.
Davis Thompson suggested one of the most famous and widespread in the linguistic science classifications, based on varying degrees of idiomatic (justification of) components in phraseologism. Identify three types of phraseological units:
1)Phraseology seam. Stable combinations of generalized integral value are not derived from the values of their components, that is not motivated them in terms of the current state of vocabulary.
We sometimes do not think about the meaning of obsolete words and phrases that do not understand the emergence of some obsolete grammatical forms, but the integrity of the significance of these phraseological understandable to everyone.
Thus, etymological analysis helps clarify the motivation for the semantics of modern idiomatic seam. But the roots phraseologism sometimes go in so distant past, that linguists have not come to a definite conclusion about their origin.
Phraseology seam may include in its membership obsolete words and grammatical forms, which also contributes to the semantic speed of irreducibility.
2)Phraseology Unity. Stable combinations of generalized integral value which is partly due to the semantics of their components, as used in the figurative sense.
For example: Swim against the current to swim against the current, do what is not characteristic of other, be in opposition to others Such phraseologisms may have "external homonyms, then is coincident with the composition of the phrase, as used in the direct value.
For example: It was very tiresome as I had to swim against the current. It was very tiring to swim against the tide.
Unlike phraseologic adhesions, lost in language of their figurative meaning, phraseological unity always perceived as metaphors or other paths.
Catch at a straw to fall on the hook . There phraseological unity, which represent a paraphrase, that is, descriptive figurative expressions, substituting one word .
For example: Broad shoulders oblique yards in the shoulders.
3)Phraseology combination
Sustained momentum, the value of which is motivated semantics of their components, one of which has phraseology associated value: droop gaze (head).
Verb - droop - in meaning - delete - has phraseology associated value, and with other words it does not blend. Phraseology associated value components such phraseology is realized only in a strictly defined lexical environment. We say: The Indian summer, but never say The Indian month, The Indian autumn, etc.
Phraseology combination often varies.
For example:
Be in one's blood = have something in one's blood to be hereditary
This classification phraseology often complementary, highlighting the so-called phraseological expressions, which are also stable, but are composed of words with the free values.
For example: To be or not to be or not to be. In this group of phraseology include cruise expressions, proverbs, sayings.
In addition, many phraseological expressions have crucial syntactic distinction: are not phrases and whole sentences.
Clarifying the concept, sometimes to a combination of this type offer applies not all proverbs and sayings, but only those acquired generalized metaphorical meaning and perceived as units close to the actual phraseology.
For example: Starry hour finest hour.
Thus, the allocation of the fourth, the last of examined, a group phraseology scientists have achieved the unity and certainty. Difference is due to the diversity and heterogeneity themselves linguistic units, which traditionally enroll in the phraseology. Typology phraseologisms are based on the grammatical similarity component of phraseology. Their types are the following:
a) a combination of an adjective with a noun:
Vicious circle - vicious circle
The Indian summer - Indian summer
b) in the translation of a combination noun in the nominative case with the noun in the genitive case:
Apple of discord apple of discord
c) a combination of prepositional-case forms of nouns with an adjective.
Be on a good footing to be on familiar terms with someone combination of a verb with the noun (with a preposition and without a preposition)
Come to one's senses to take on the mind. Cock one's nose nose up.
e) a combination of a verb with an adverb:
To see through (somebody see through)
Fly high (to be very ambitious)
Get down to earth come down to earth - combination of communion with the noun
One's heart is bleeding heart bleeds typology, based on line syntax functions of phraseological units and parts of speech, they can be replaced.
Stand out these types of phraseological units:
a) nominal phraseologisms:
Swan-song - swan song
In the sentence, they serve as the subject, predicate, complement, by the nature of relationships with other words in combination may control of any member and to be governed;
b) verbal phraseologisms:
Hold one's ground to stay very firmly not to surrender their positions . The proposal act as a predicate, in conjunction with in other words, may agree to manage and be managed;
c) adjectival phraseologisms:
In blooming health blood with milk
They are important quality characteristics and like an adjective, serve sentence in the function definition or Author of the predicate;
d) adverbial or adverbial phraseologisms
Up one's sleeves carelessly
They, like adverbs, characterize the quality of and fulfill the role of circumstances in the sentence;
e) interjections phraseologisms
Good luck! Good luck! Like interjections such as phraseological units express expression of will, feeling, speaking as an individual, undivided proposals.
(Ostistaya Lilia)

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