The word "culture" has many different meanings. The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture, published in 1871. Tylor said that culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Of course, it is not limited to men. Women possess and create it as well.

Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon. It is constantly changing and easily lost because it exists only in our minds. Our written languages, governments, buildings, and other man-made things are merely the products of culture. They are not culture in themselves.
(Feride Emirova)
Cultural accumulation is a condition when more traits are added to a society than are discarded during a particular period of time.
(Khatidzhe Baitullaieva)

 The term "concept" is traced back to 1554–60 (Latin conceptum - "something conceived"), but what is today termed "the classical theory of concepts" is the theory of Aristotle on the definition of terms. The meaning of "concept" is explored in mainstream information science, cognitive science, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. In computer and information science contexts, especially, the term 'concept' is often used in unclear or inconsistent ways. Immanuel Kant held that the account of the concept as an abstraction of experience is only partly correct. He called those concepts that result of abstraction "a posteriori concepts" (meaning concepts that arise out of experience). An empirical or an a posteriori concept is a general representation  or non-specific thought of that which is common to several specific perceived objects. Kant's description of the making of a concept has been paraphrased as " conceive is essentially to think in abstraction what is common to a plurality of possible instances...". In his discussion of Kant, Christopher Janaway wrote: "...generic concepts are formed by abstraction from more than one species.
( Emirova F.)

Frame semantics is a theory that relates linguistic semantics to encyclopedic knowledge developed by Charles J. Fillmore, and is a further development of his case grammar.
The basic idea is that one cannot understand the meaning of a single word without access to all the essential knowledge that relates to that word. For example, one would not be able to understand the word sell without knowing anything about the situation of COMMERCIAL TRANSACTION, which also involves, among other things, a SELLER, a BUYER, GOODS, MONEY, the relation between the MONEY and the GOODS, the relations between the SELLER and the GOODS and the MONEY, the relation between the BUYER and the GOODS and the money and so on.
Thus, a word activates, or evokes, a semantic frame of encyclopaedic meaning relating to the specific concept it refers to (or highlights, in frame semantic terminology). Words not only highlight individual concepts, but also specify a certain perspective in which the frame is viewed. For example "sell" views the situation from the perspective of the seller and "buy" from the perspective of the buyer. This, according to Fillmore, explains the observed asymmetries in many lexical relations. While originally only being applied to lexemes, frame semantics has now been expanded to grammatical constructions and other larger and more complex linguistic units and has more or less been integrated into construction grammar as the main semantic principle. 
(Feride Emirova)

A set expression of two or more words that means something other than the literal meanings of its individual words. Adjective: idiomatic.
For example:
 "Every cloud has its silver lining but it is sometimes a little difficult to get it to the mint."
(Don Marquis)
(Khatidzhe Baitullaieva)

The word "language" has at least two basic meanings: language as a general concept, and "a language" (a specific linguistic system, e.g. "French"). In French, the language used by Ferdinand de Saussure who first explicitly formulated the distinction, uses the word langage for language as a concept and langue as the specific instance of language.
(Feride Emirova)

 Mentality (Latin word “mens”, “mentis”- spirit, thinking, reasonableness and a way of thinking) is a totality of socially psychological facilities, automatisms and habits of consciousness which forms a way of vision of the world and concept of people. As any other social phenomena the mentality is historically changeable but alteration occurs very slowly in them. Social psychologist sees in mentality interrelated psychological reactions. Social historian considers that mentality is generalized way of perception of the world, the manner of thinking and feeling. Sociolinguist thinks that mentality is semantic matrix predetermined meaningful reactions of cultural subject.The term “mentality” was used in XIX century by American philosopher and poet Emerson F. who tried to connect metaphysical and psychological problems of social moods. The notion “collective mentality” was also used by French politician and historian Alexis-Charles-Henri-Clerel de Tocqueville who rushed to find initial cause of prejudices, habits and weakness.
 (Feride Emirova)

 The term ""masterpiece" (or chef d'Ĺ“uvre in French) referred to a piece of handcrafted art produced by a journeyman aspiring to become a master craftsman in the old European guild system, which is partially retained today in Germany and France. These were (or are) typically perfect pieces of handicraft art, admired for their beauty and elegance.

Nowadays this term mostly refers to any work of art that is considered extraordinary. In a stronger sense, it can refer to what is considered an artist's best piece of work. For example, Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa, Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith Slaying Holofernes, Michelangelo's David, William Shakespeare's Hamlet, or Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, Leo Tolstoy`s War and Peace or, for modern masterpieces, Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow, Pink Floyd's Dark Side of the Moon, and Miles Davis' Kind of Blue.
(Khatidzhe Baitullaieva)

Phraseology is the form of words used in ex pressing some idea or thought; mode or style of expression; the particular words or phrases combined to form a sentence, or the method of arranging them; diction; style.
(Khatidzhe Baitullaieva)
Stereotype is a prejudice towards an individual that simplifies thought and labels an individual into a group that is characterized with certain attributes with which this individual is expected to support. Many of these assessments that are made of others are actually interactive processes. More simply stated, a stereotype is a preconceived and oversimplified notion of characteristics typical of a person or group. They are shortcuts that the mind uses for representation in our memory as summaries of the typical group member.
Stereotype is a fixed set of ideas that is generally held about the characteristics of a particular type of person which are wrongly believed to be shared by all the people of that type.
 (Feride Emirova)

"Word" is a unit of languageconsisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representation, that functions as a principal carrier of meaning. Words are composed of one or more morphemes and are either the smallest units susceptible of independent use or consist of two or three such units combined under certain linking conditions, as with the loss of primary accent that distinguishes blackbird (where "blackbird" is a common European thrush, Turdus merula, in which the male has a black plumage and yellow bill and the female is brown)  from black bird(just a marking of a bird).  Words are usually separated by spaces in writing,and are distinguished phonologically, as by accent, in  many languages.(Khatidzhe Baitullaieva)

Worldview it is:

1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group.
American Heritage Dictionary 
(Khatidzhe Baitullaieva)

1 comment:

  1. Definition: A stereotype is "...a fixed, over generalised belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996). In other words stereotyping is believing that people of a certain group, race or religion all have the same characteristics when they don't.
    (Gerasimchik Angelina)